Despite the fact that endometriosis is a relatively common condition affecting an estimated 176 million women worldwide, there is a surprising lack of awareness about its symptoms, impact and management.
Endometriosis occurs when tissue that is similar to the lining of the uterus develops outside the uterus. However, while the tissue that builds up within the uterus is shed from the body during menstruation, there is no place for the tissue outside the uterus to go, which may result in inflammation, pain, scar tissue and adhesions on other organs, infertility and bowel problems.
Because some pain or discomfort during menstruation is relatively common, many women may chalk up what they feel as “normal” period pain, when in fact it is a sign of endometriosis. That’s why it’s important to talk to your provider about symptoms, especially any pain you experience.
In addition to pain during menstruation, symptoms of endometriosis may also include:
pain during ovulation
pain during or after sex
chronic pelvic pain
pain during urination or bowel movements during menstruation
difficulty getting pregnant
Endometriosis impacts a woman’s physical health, as well as her mental and social well-being. We can help you manage your symptoms.
Treatment options may include medications to manage symptoms, or surgery to remove scar tissue and adhesions. Pregnancy may relieve symptoms of endometriosis, but they typically return after childbirth.
We work closely with all of our patients who have endometriosis to develop a care plan based on their unique situations and goals. For example, the treatment for a woman who wants to have children versus one who does not or who is finished having children can be quite different. The severity of symptoms can also vary tremendously, and may change over time, so regular exams and discussions help to ensure you benefit from the most effective treatment.
If you have symptoms of endometriosis or need help managing this condition, call us for an appointment.
The time is near for chocolates and flowers, but we suggest you do something sweet for yourself in honor of Valentine’s Day this year.
Women often put caring for themselves on the back burner as they strive to care for those around them. That’s why we encourage you to do something for yourself this February and take time to schedule any health appointments you may be due for.
While most women don’t require a Pap smear every year, annual well-woman checkups are an important way for you to stay on top of your health.
What to Expect
During this appointment, we’ll review any changes to your health over the past year. We’ll talk about changes in your medical or family history, your menstrual cycle and sexual health, as well as any risk factors you have. In addition, we’ll discuss your concerns and questions about issues that impact your health, ranging from family planning and birth control to your relationships, safety and mental well-being.
The appointment will include a physical exam, measuring height and weight, blood pressure and temperature, as well as a clinical breast exam and pelvic exam.
We’ll also perform or recommend additional screenings or tests that are indicated, such as a Pap smear, bone density screening, mammogram or blood tests for things such as sexually transmitted diseases, diabetes, and iron and vitamin D levels.
Regular exams and screenings can help us detect problems when they’re developing or in their earliest stages, when they are easiest to treat. We will discuss your risk factors and history and develop a customized screening schedule or care plan for you.
If you need to schedule your annual well-woman checkup, call us for an appointment today.
January is Cervical Cancer Awareness Month. Cervical cancer is one of the most preventable cancers with appropriate screening. That’s why awareness is so important.
The two most important things that women can do to prevent cervical cancer are to get the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination series and to have regular Pap smears and HPV screening. The main cause of cervical cancer is HPV infection; however, because not all women received the vaccines and because the vaccine doesn’t protect against every type of HPV, regular screening is also essential.
There are several FDA-approved vaccinations for the prevention of HPV-caused cervical and other cancers, which should ideally be administered before the patient is sexually active. The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) currently recommends that 11- and 12-year-olds receive two doses at least 6 months apart. The vaccines have been found to provide up to 100% protection against two types of HPV, and up to 97% for the other five types.
Regular Pap smears and HPV screening help us detect precancerous changes in the cervix that allow us to treat the infection before cancer develops or to treat it in its earliest stages.
Depending on your risk factors, as well as your prior Pap smear results, we will discuss how often you should have Pap smears. Even if you do not need a Pap smear every year, we still recommend yearly pelvic exams as another form of screening.
HPV infection is very common, but in most cases, the infection clears itself. When it doesn’t clear, or if it becomes chronic, it can lead to certain cancers, including cervical cancer. Other risk factors for cervical cancer include:
a weakened immune system
certain sexually transmitted infections, such as chlamydia
having a male sexual partner who has had multiple sexual partners
a personal history of dysplasia of the cervix, vagina or vulva
early age (under 18 years old) at which you first had sex
If you have questions about the HPV vaccine, or need to schedule your Pap smear and HPV screening, call us for an appointment.
Premenstrual syndrome, more commonly called PMS, is common fodder for jokes, but for many women, it’s no laughing matter. It’s hard to pin down exactly how many women are affected, but it’s likely that 75 to 90 percent of women experience PMS in some form during their lifetimes, and symptoms range from mild to intense.
While the exact cause of PMS is unknown, it seems to be the result of cyclical hormonal changes and chemical changes in the brain. There is also no test to diagnose PMS––instead, women are often tested to rule out other causes, like pregnancy, endometriosis or cancer, when symptoms arise.
While we don’t really know what causes PMS, and why some women experience it and some don’t, it is a true medical condition. Unfortunately, many women are made to feel like they are being dramatic about how bad they feel. Everyone is different, and each person’s experience can change over time. The good news is there are things we can do to lessen its impact.
PMS typically occurs just past mid-cycle, between ovulation and the onset of menstruation, and can last from a couple days to a week or more.
Symptoms of PMS are many and include emotional and behavioral problems such as tension, anxiety, mood swings and depression, appetite changes and cravings, insomnia and trouble concentrating.
Physical symptoms can include muscle and joint pain and cramping, breast tenderness, fluid retention and bloating, fatigue, headaches, acne, constipation, diarrhea and more. Most women with PMS experience several symptoms each month.
We ask women to keep a journal of their symptoms for a few months. When we see a pattern to the symptoms, and rule out other causes, PMS is the most likely diagnosis. For women with extreme symptoms, especially the emotional and behavioral ones, the diagnosis may be premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD).
We can also use the journal to help pinpoint triggers. For example, if you get headaches a few days before your period, we may recommend cutting back on caffeine the week before your period to see if that helps.
Lifestyle changes you can make that may relieve or at least lessen your PMS symptoms, include:
Eating smaller, more frequent meals and limiting salt intake
Regular exercise, like walking for 30 minutes a day
Getting enough sleep
Yoga and massage
Limiting caffeine and alcohol
Eating a healthy diet that’s rich in calcium
You may need to experiment to find out what works best for you. If your symptoms are severe enough to impact your daily life––you regularly miss school, work or other activities–– and nothing you’ve tried is working, it’s time to talk your women’s health provider.
Medical Treatment for PMS
Medical treatment varies based on each woman’s symptoms and their severity:
Antidepressants can help women with mood symptoms. Some can be taken daily, and others only in the two weeks prior to each period
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAIDS), such as ibuprofen or naproxen, can help relieve muscle, joint and breast pain
Diuretics can help with swelling and bloating
Hormonal contraceptives, like the pill, can relieve or lessen a range of symptoms
If you have symptoms that disrupt your life every month before your period, come and see us. We’ll work with you to develop a plan to treat your specific symptoms so you can have as little disruption to your life as possible.
Ignore marketing and celebrity hype about products and treatments Debra (Burt) Ames, CNM
Like an ear, a nose or a myriad other body parts, women’s genitalia comes in a variety of shapes and sizes. Unfortunately, due to the proliferation of marketing, celebrity endorsements and societal pressures, it’s become another area of the body for women to feel insecure about.
Like a fingerprint, every woman’s genitalia––including the pubis, labia, clitoris, vulva and vagina––are all different. But more than ever, women are subjected to a wide variety of ideas about what “perfect” looks like, when there’s no such thing. Even many textbooks portray the female genitalia as pink and smooth, with no hair and thin, trim labia; this doesn’t reflect reality.
The result is an increase in the use of unnecessary vaginal products––including douches and cleansers––and unnecessary cosmetic services, like waxing and even surgery. In fact, a recent report by the American Society of Plastic Surgeons showed that labiaplasty (a procedure in which the labia minor is trimmed to tuck up into the labia majora) increased 39 percent from 2015 to 2016.
Here are a few key things to remember:
Size doesn’t matter. There is no standard size and shape of a woman’s external genitalia. Some women have longer or thicker labia, and others are smaller or thinner. Texture can vary tremendously from relatively smooth to very wrinkled or bumpy, with lots of folds. Some women have a more prominent clitoris, and others are more hidden. It’s all fine.
Hair is normal. Currently, our culture seems to encourage women to remove all or most of their pubic hair. It’s fine if that’s what you prefer, but there is no medical reason to do so. Actually, in addition to the time, effort and discomfort involved, hair removal increases the risk of problems like irritation and infection from things like ingrown hairs for nicks from a razor.
Color may vary. The color of genitalia can range from pink to red, brown, or even purplish. Just like skin tone, the color of women’s genitalia varies. It can also change over the course of your lifetime, such as after childbirth.
Vaginas are self-cleaning. There is no need for you to wash the inside of your vagina, or to douche it, steam it, moisturize it or any of many other things we’re currently seeing promoted in the media.
All you really need to do is regularly wash your external genitalia with water, or if preferred, with a very mild soap, and forget the rest. Cleansers can strip the vagina of its healthy flora and increase your risk of yeast and other infections. Fragrances (including scented tampons) can also cause irritation and upset the vagina’s natural pH balance.
The amount of normal vaginal discharge varies from woman to woman, and changes at different points in a woman’s cycle. This is how the vagina cleans itself. The smell and consistency of the discharge will also change throughout your cycle.
When to see a women’s health provider
If you are considering using a new product or treatment for your vaginal area, talk to your women’s health provider first. Tell us your concerns. We will work with you to come up with a solution that won’t do more harm than good.
You should also see your provider if you experience:
Pain or discomfort during or after sex or other activities. There are some anatomical issues or conditions that can be corrected if they cause a problem.
New lumps or growths. It’s normal to get the occasional pimple or even a bug bite, but if you find a lump or growth, get it checked.
Whitish patches or a rash that’s not due to hair removal.
Intense itching, burning, or bleeding of the skin.
A discharge that is lumpy, gray, yellow or green.
Spotting between periods.
There are lots of products and trends out on the market that promise to rejuvenate or enhance women’s genital areas, preying on, or even creating, insecurity and unnecessary worries. However, it’s an area of the body that’s pretty low-maintenance: a daily, gentle, external cleansing with water and regular annual- or semi-annual exams by a women’s health care provider to catch potential problems early.
There is nothing you can ask us that you should be embarrassed about. We pride ourselves on our ability to get to know our patients and address their concerns without judgement so you can feel comfortable talking about anything. A big part of what we do in many cases is to set your mind at ease.
Have questions or concerns? Schedule an appointment online or call us: 413-562-8016 for our Westfield office or 413-736-9978 for our Springfield office.